Key research

Radiolabelled prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can be used for PET imaging and also treatment of patients with prostate cancer.

The first PSMA PET with Gallium-68 was performed at Peter Mac in 2014 and PSMA therapy with Lutetium-177 in 2015. Since 2017, we have also performed PSMA PET with Fluorine-18. Our multidisciplinary team has been actively involved in advancing research with over 55 publications related to PSMA imaging or therapy over the last 5 years.

Our key publications

  1. Hofman MS, Lawrentschuk N, Francis RJ, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET-CT in patients with high-risk prostate cancer before curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA): a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. The Lancet. 2020 April 11-17.
  2. Hofman MS, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Ferdinandus J, Thang SP, Akhurst T, Iravani A, Kong G, Ravi Kumar A, Murphy DG, Eu P, Jackson P, Scalzo M, Williams SG, Sandhu S. [(177)Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (LuPSMA trial): a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2018 May 7.
  3. Perera M, Papa N, Roberts M, Williams M, Udovicich C, Vela I, Christidis D, Bolton D, Hofman MS, Lawrentschuk N, Murphy DG. Gallium-68 Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Advanced Prostate Cancer-Updated Diagnostic Utility, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Distribution of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-avid Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol. 2019 Feb 14.
  4. Calais J, Ceci F, Eiber M, Hope TA, Hofman MS, Rischpler C, Bach-Gansmo T, Nanni C, Savir-Baruch B, Elashoff D, Grogan T, Dahlbom M, Slavik R, Gartmann J, Nguyen K, Lok V, Jadvar H, Kishan AU, Rettig MB, Reiter RE, Fendler WP, Czernin J. (18)F-fluciclovine PET-CT and (68)Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT in patients with early biochemical recurrence after prostatectomy: a prospective, single-centre, single-arm, comparative imaging trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019 Jul 30.
  5. Gillessen S, Attard G, Beer TM, Beltran H, Bjartell A, Bossi A, Briganti A, Bristow RG, Chi KN, Clarke N, Davis ID, de Bono J, Drake CG, Duran I, Eeles R, Efstathiou E, Evans CP, Fanti S, Feng FY, Fizazi K, Frydenberg M, Gleave M, Halabi S, Heidenreich A, Heinrich D, Higano CTS, Hofman MS, Hussain M, James N, Kanesvaran R, Kantoff P, Khauli RB, Leibowitz R, Logothetis C, Maluf F, Millman, R, Morgans AK, Morris MJ, Mottet N, Mrabti H, Murphy DG, Murthy V, Oh WK, Ost P, O'Sullivan JM, Padhani AR, Parker C, Poon DMC, Pritchard CC, Reiter RE, Roach M, Rubin M, Ryan CJ, Saad F, Sade JP, Sartor O, Scher HI, Shore N, Small E, Smith M, Soule H, Sternberg CN, Steuber T, Suzuki H, Sweeney C, Sydes MR, Taplin ME, Tombal B, Türkeri L, van Oort I, Zapatero A, Omlin A. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Report of the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2019. Eur Urol. 2020 Apr;77(4):508-547.
  1. Ferdinandus J, Violet J, Sandhu S, Hicks RJ, Ravi Kumar AS, Iravani A, Kong G, Akhurst T, Thang SP, Murphy DG, Williams S, Hofman MS. Prognostic biomarkers in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer receiving [177Lu]-PSMA-617. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2020 Mar 5.
  2. Violet J, Sandhu S, Iravani A, Ferdinandus J, Thang SP, Kong G, Ravi Kumar A, Akhurst T, Pattison DA, Beaulieu A, Mooi J, Guo C, Kalff V, Murphy DG, Jackson P, Eu P, Scalzo M, Williams S, Hicks RJ, Hofman MS. Long term follow-up and outcomes of re-treatment in an expanded 50 patient single-center phase II prospective trial of Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) PSMA-617 theranostics in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. J Nucl Med. 2019 Nov 15.
  3. Jackson PA, Hofman MS, Hicks RJ, Scalzo M, Violet JA. Radiation Dosimetry in (177)Lu-PSMA-617 Therapy Using a Single Post-treatment SPECT/CT: A Novel Methodology to Generate Time- and Tissue-specific Dose Factors. J Nucl Med. 2019 Dec 5.
  4. Fendler WP, Weber M, Iravani A, Hofman MS, Calais J, Czernin J, Ilhan H, Saad F, Small EJ, Smith MR, Perez PM, Hope TA, Rauscher I, Londhe A, Lopez-Gitlitz A, Cheng S, Maurer T, Herrmann K, Eiber M, Hadaschik B. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand Positron-Emission Tomography in Men with Nonmetastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 Sep 11.
  5. Hardcastle N, Hofman MS, Lee CY, Callahan J, Selbie L, Foroudi F, Shaw M, Chander S, Lim A, Chesson B, Murphy DG, Kron T, Siva S. NaF PET/CT for response assessment of prostate cancer bone metastases treated with single fraction stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2019 Sep 5;14(1):164.
  6. Kalapara AA, Nzenza T, Pan HY, Ballok Z, Ramdave S, O'Sullivan R, Ryan A, Cherk M, Hofman MS, Konety BR, Lawrentschuk N, Bolton D, Murphy DG, Grummet JP, Frydenberg M. Detection and localisation of primary prostate cancer using (68) Ga-PSMA PET/CT compared with mpMRI and radical prostatectomy specimens. BJU Int. 2019 Jul 1.
  7. Ferreira G, Iravani A, Hofman MS, Hicks RJ. Intra-individual comparison of (68)Ga-PSMA-11 and (18)F-DCFPyL normal-organ biodistribution. Cancer Imaging. 2019 May 15;19(1):23.
  8. Reynolds HM, Williams S, Jackson P, Mitchell C, Hofman MS, Hicks RJ, Murphy DG, Haworth A. Voxel-wise correlation of positron emission tomography/computed tomography with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and histology of the prostate using a sophisticated registration framework. BJU Int. 2018 Dec 10. 
  9. Violet JA, Jackson P, Ferdinandus J, Sandhu S, Akhurst T, Iravani A, Kong G, Ravi Kumar A, Thang SP, Eu P, Scalzo M, Murphy D, Williams SG, Hicks RJ, Hofman MS. Dosimetry of Lu-177 PSMA-617 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: correlations between pre-therapeutic imaging and "whole body" tumor dosimetry with treatment outcomes. J Nucl Med. 2018 Oct 5.
  10. Bailey DL, Hofman MS, Forwood NJ, O'Keefe GJ, Scott AM, van Wyngaardt WM, Howe B, Kovacev O, Francis RJ; ARTnet; and the ProPSMA Trial Investigators. Accuracy of Dose Calibrators for (68)Ga PET Imaging: Unexpected Findings in a Multicenter Clinical Pretrial Assessment. J Nucl Med. 2018 Apr;59(4):636-638.
  11. Iravani A, Hofman MS, Mulcahy T, Williams S, Murphy D, Parameswaran BK, Hicks RJ. (68)Ga PSMA-11 PET with CT urography protocol in the initial staging and biochemical relapse of prostate cancer. Cancer Imaging. 2017 Dec 21;17(1):31.
  1. Amin A, Blazevski A, Thompson J, Scheltema MJ, Hofman MS, Murphy D, Lawrentschuk N, Sathianathen N, Kapoor J, Woo HH, Chalasani V, Rasiah K, van Leeuwen PJ, Tang R, Cusick T, Stricker P, Emmett L. Protocol for the PRIMARY clinical trial, a prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study of the additive diagnostic value of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron-emission tomography/computed tomography to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic setting for men being investigated for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2020 Jan 19. doi: 10.1111/bju.14999.
  2. Hofman MS, Emmett L, Violet J, Y Zhang A, Lawrence NJ, Stockler M, Francis RJ, Iravani A, Williams S, Azad A, Martin A, McJannett M; ANZUP TheraP team, Davis ID. TheraP: a randomized phase 2 trial of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 theranostic treatment vs cabazitaxel in progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (Clinical Trial Protocol ANZUP 1603). BJU Int. 2019 Nov;124 Suppl 1:5-13.
  3. Hofman MS, Murphy DG, Williams SG, Nzenza T, Herschtal A, Lourenco RA, Bailey  DL, Budd R, Hicks RJ, Francis RJ, Lawrentschuk N. A prospective randomized multicentre study of the impact of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT imaging for staging high-risk prostate cancer prior to curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA study): clinical trial protocol. BJU Int. 2018 May 3. 
  1. Siva S, Udovicich C, Tran B, Zargar H, Murphy DG, Hofman MS. Expanding the role of small-molecule PSMA ligands beyond PET staging of prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2020 Feb;17(2):107-118.
  2. Iravani A, Violet J, Azad A, Hofman MS. Lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) theranostics: practical nuances and intricacies. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Oct 8. doi: 10.1038/s41391-019-0174-x. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Koschel S, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Wong LM. The role of prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography in primary staging of prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2019 Nov;29(6):569-577.
  4. Alipour R, Azad A, Hofman MS. Guiding management of therapy in prostate cancer: time to switch from conventional imaging to PSMA PET? Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2019 Sep 20;11:1758835919876828.
  5. Hofman MS, Iravani A, Nzenza T, Murphy DG. Advances in Urologic Imaging: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand PET Imaging. Urol Clin North Am. 2018 Aug;45(3):503-524. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2018.03.016.
  6. Ferdinandus J, Violet J, Sandhu S, Hofman MS. Prostate-specific membrane antigen theranostics: therapy with lutetium-177. Curr Opin Urol. 2018 Mar;28(2):197-204.
  7. Hofman MS, Hicks RJ, Maurer T, Eiber M. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET: Clinical Utility in Prostate Cancer, Normal Patterns, Pearls, and Pitfalls. Radiographics. 2018 Jan-Feb;38(1):200-217
  8. Eiber M, Fendler WP, Rowe SP, Calais J, Hofman MS, Maurer T, Schwarzenboeck SM, Kratowchil C, Herrmann K, Giesel FL. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands for Imaging and Therapy. J Nucl Med. 2017 Sep;58(Suppl 2):67S-76S.
  9. Hofman MS, Iravani A. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging. PET Clin. 2017 Apr;12(2):219-234. doi: 10.1016/j.cpet.2016.12.004. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
  10. Udovicich C, Perera M, Siva S, Hofman MS, Murphy D, Lawrentschuk N.  68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in Advanced Prostate Cancer: current state and future trends, Prostate International 2017. Dec;5(4):125-129.
  1. Hofman M. PSMA PET/CT for staging and treatment of prostate cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2019 Jul;17(7):370-373.
  2. Hofman MS, Emmett L. Tumour Heterogeneity and Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer: A Fundamental Limitation of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Theranostics or a Key Strength? Eur Urol. 2019 Jul 24.
  3. Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Azad A, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Lawrentschuk N. Going nuclear - It is time to embed the nuclear medicine physician in the prostate cancer multidisciplinary team. BJU Int. 2019 May 24.
  4. Rahbar K, Hofman MS, Schrader AJ, Boegemann M. A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Comparing (177)Lu-PSMA Radioligand therapy in Taxane Naïve vs Post-Taxane metastasized Prostate Cancer Patients? J Nucl Med. 2019 Mar 29.
  5. Murphy DG, Sathianathen N, Hofman MS, Azad A, Lawrentschuk N. Where to Next for Theranostics in Prostate Cancer? Eur Urol Oncol. 2019 Mar;2(2):163-165.
  6. Vapiwala N, Hofman MS, Murphy DG, Williams S, Sweeney C. Strategies for Evaluation of Novel Imaging in Prostate Cancer: Putting the Horse Back Before the Cart. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Apr 1;37(10):765-769.
  7. Rahbar K, Hofman MS, Schrader AJ, Boegemann M. A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Comparing (177)Lu-PSMA Radioligand therapy in Taxane Naïve vs Post-Taxane metastasized Prostate Cancer Patients? J Nucl Med. 2019 Mar 29.
  8. Murphy DG, Sathianathen N, Hofman MS, Azad A, Lawrentschuk N. Where to Next for Theranostics in Prostate Cancer? Eur Urol Oncol. 2019 Mar;2(2):163-165.
  9. Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Azad A, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Lawrentschuk N. Going nuclear - It is time to embed the nuclear medicine physician in the prostate cancer multidisciplinary team. BJU Int. 2019 May 24.
  10. Murphy DG, Azad AA, Sandhu S, Violet J, Hofman MS. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Across the Spectrum of Prostate Cancer: Detection, Surgery, and Theranostics. Eur Urol. 2019 Jun;75(6):927-928.
  11. Eapen RS, Nzenza TC, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Cooperberg M, Lawrentschuk N. PSMA PET applications in the prostate cancer journey: from diagnosis to theranostics. World J Urol. 2018 Oct 29.
  12. Hofman MS, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Sandhu S. [(177)Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer - Author's reply. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Aug;19(8):e373.
  13. Hofman MS. Accuracy in the eye of the beholder: can we improve agreement in prostate cancer diagnostics with PSMA PET/CT? J Nucl Med. 2017 Jun 21.
  14. Maurer T, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Eiber M. PSMA-PET for Lymph Node Detection in Recurrent Prostate Cancer: How do we use the Magic Bullet? Theranostics. 2017 May 15;7(7):2046-2047.
  15. Violet J, Hofman MS, Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) from diagnostic to therapeutic target: radionuclide therapy comes of age in prostate cancer, BJUI 2017 Apr 5
  16. Murphy DG, Hofman M, Lawrentschuk N, Maurer T. Bringing clarity or confusion? The role of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron-emission/computed tomography for primary staging in prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2017 Feb;119(2):194-195.