Key research

Radiolabelled prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) can be used for PET imaging and also treatment of patients with prostate cancer.

The first PSMA PET with Gallium-68 was performed at Peter Mac in 2014 and PSMA therapy with Lutetium-177 in 2015. Since 2017, we have also performed PSMA PET with Fluorine-18. Our multidisciplinary team has been actively involved in advancing research with over 55 publications related to PSMA imaging or therapy over the last 5 years.

Our key publications

See European Urology publication published in December 2021

Article:

One man’s mission to make prostate cancer fix open to all published February 2022

PSMA Is Ready to Change Practice in mCRPC published December 2021

Lancet Oncology published 8 July 2021
Nomograms to predict outcomes after ¹⁷⁷Lu-PSMA therapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an international, multicentre, retrospective study.

  1. Louise E, James B,  Nathan P, et al. The Additive Diagnostic Value of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography to Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Triage in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PRIMARY): A Prospective Multicentre Study.  European Urol, 2021

           First prospective of PSMA PET for diagnosis of prostate cancer

           Citations – Recently published

  1. Hofman MS, Emmett L, S Shahneen, et al. [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 versus cabazitaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (TheraP): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 February 11

           Citations - 81

  1. Hofman MS, Nathan L, Roslyn JF, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET-CT in patients with high-risk prostate cancer before curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA): a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Lancet Oncol. 2020 March 22

    Landmark 10-site RCT establishing PSMA PET/CT as a new standard-of-care in comparison to CT/bone scanning. Presented as EAU20 plenary. FDA approval of 68Ga-PSMA-11 2021

    Citations – 448

  1. Jeremie C, Francesco C, Matthias E, et al.   18F-fluciclovine PET-CT vs 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT: a prospective, single-centre, single-arm, comparative imaging trial. Lancet Oncol. 2019 September 09

           Citations - 215

  1. Hofman MS, John V, Rodney JH, et al. [¹⁷⁷Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (LuPSMA trial): a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet oncol. 2018 June 1

           7th most highly cited manuscript in Lanc Onc since 2018

           Citations - 577

  1. Marlon P, Nathan P, Matthew R, et al. Gallium-68 Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Advanced Prostate Cancer—Updated Diagnostic Utility, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Distribution of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-avid Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. European Urol, 2016 April 01

           2020 update also highly cited with 372 citations

           Citations – 882

  1. Hofman MS, Louise E, Shahneen Sandhu, et al. [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 versus cabazitaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (TheraP): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 February 11

    Practice changing first RCT of 177Lu-PSMA-617, a novel treatment for men with metastatic prostate      cancer. First author and study chair. Oral presentations at ASCO 2020 and ASCO GU 2021

           Citations – N/A

  1. Hofman MS, Nathan L, Roslyn JF, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET-CT in patients with high-risk prostate cancer before curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA): a prospective, randomised, multicentre study. Lancet Oncol., 2020 March 22

    Landmark 10-site RCT establishing PSMA PET/CT as a new standard-of-care in comparison to CT/bone scanning. Presented as EAU20 plenary. FDA approval of 68Ga-PSMA-11 2020. Cited in 2021 NCCN  guidelines

    Citations – 424
     
  2. Jeremie C, Francesco C, Matthias E, et al.   18F-fluciclovine PET-CT vs 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET-CT: a prospective, single-centre, single-arm, comparative imaging trial. Lancet oncol. 2019 September 09

          (CI Hofman) Practice changing study, contributed to FDA approval 2020

          Citations – 206

  1. John V, Price J, Justin F, et al., Dosimetry of 177Lu-PSMA. Landmark publication demonstrating dose-response relationship using novel voxel-based whole tumour dosimetry. Jnumed. 2019 April

           Citations – 136

  1. Hofman MS, John V, Rodney JH, et al. [¹⁷⁷Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide treatment in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (LuPSMA trial): a single-centre, single-arm, phase 2 study. Lancet oncol. 2018 June 1

    (CI Hofman, Murphy). First-in-field publication. Led to Endocyte/AAA / Novartis $2b acquisition, multiple ph2/3 studies.

           Citations – 547

  1. Hofman MS, Rodney JH, Tobias M, et al. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET: clinical utility in prostate cancer, normal patterns, pearls, and pitfalls. Radiograph., 2018

    Highly cited Radiographics manuscript based on award winning RSNA presentation

          Citations – 152

  1. Marlon P, Nathan P, Matthew R, et al. Gallium-68 Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography in Advanced Prostate Cancer—Updated Diagnostic Utility, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Distribution of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-avid Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. European Urol., 2016 April 01

           Widely cited meta-analysis. 2020 update also published with >350 citations

           Citations – 807

  1. Hofman MS, Rodney JH, W. F. Eddie L. Somatostatin Receptor Imaging with 68Ga DOTATATE PET/CT: Clinical Utility, Normal Patterns, Pearls, and Pitfalls in Interpretation. Radiograph, 2015

           Citations – 281

  1. Andrea G, Sally F. B, Alberto B, et al. The predictive role of interim positron emission tomography for Hodgkin lymphoma treatment outcome is confirmed using the interpretation criteria of the Deauville five-point scale. Haematologica., 2014 June

    Seminal multi-centre study demonstrating high reporter agreement of five-point score in lymphoma

           Citations – 289

  1. Hofman MS, Grace K, Oliver C, et al. High management impact of Ga‐68 DOTATATE (GaTate) PET/CT for imaging neuroendocrine and other somatostatin expressing tumours. JMIRO 2012 February

    Cited in NCCN guidelines

           Citations – 211

  1. Emmett L, Buteau J, Papa N, et al. The Additive Diagnostic Value of Prostate- specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography to Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Triage in the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer (PRIMARY): A Prospective Multicentre Study. Eur Urol. 2021 Aug 28:S0302-2838(21)01946-1.
     
  2. Gafita A, Calais J, Grogan TR, et al. Nomograms to predict outcomes after 177Lu-PSMA therapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: an international, multicentre, retrospective study. Lancet Oncol. 2021 Jul 8
     
  3. Viljoen B, Hofman MS, Chambers SK, et al. Advanced prostate cancer experimental radioactive treatment-clinical trial decision making: patient experiences. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2021 Aug 9:bmjspcare-2021-002994. doi: 10.1136/bmjspcare-2021-002994.
     
  4. Hofman MS, Emmett L, Sandhu S, et al.; TheraP Trial Investigators and the Australian and New Zealand Urogenital and Prostate Cancer Trials Group. [177Lu]Lu-PSMA-617 versus cabazitaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (TheraP): a randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):797-804.
     
  5. Emmett L, Subramaniam S, Joshua A, et al. ; Australian and New Zealand Urogenital and Prostate Cancer Trials Group (ANZUP) and the ENZA-p investigators. ENZA-p trial protocol: A randomised phase II trial using PSMA as a therapeutic target and prognostic indicator in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with enzalutamide (ANZUP 1901). BJU Int. 2021 May 24.
     
  6. Gafita A, Wang H, Robertson A, et al. Tumor sink effect in 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET: Myth or Reality? J Nucl Med. 2021 May 28
     
  7. Dhiantravan N, Emmett L, Joshua AM, et al. UpFrontPSMA: A Randomised Phase 2 Study of Sequential 177Lu-PSMA617 and Docetaxel versus Docetaxel in Metastatic Hormone-Naïve Prostate Cancer. BJU Int. 2021 Mar 7.
     
  8. Le Pennec R, Iravani A, Woon B, et al. Gallium-68 Ventilation/Perfusion PET-CT and CT Pulmonary Angiography for Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis: An Interobserver Agreement Study. Front Med 2021 Feb 16
     
  9. McIntosh L, Jackson P, Hardcastle N, et al. Automated assessment of functional lung imaging with 68Ga-ventilation/perfusion PET/CT using iterative histogram analysis. EJNMMI Phys. 2021 Mar 7;8(1):23.
     
  10. Subramaniam S, Callahan J, Bressel M, et al. The role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in retroperitoneal sarcomas-A multicenter retrospective study. J Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;123(4):1081-1087
     
  11. Osman MM, Iravani A, Hofman MS, Hicks RJ. Intra-patient comparison of physiologic 68Ga-PSMA-11 and 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT uptake in ganglia in prostate cancer patients: a pictorial essay. Cancer Imaging. 2021 Apr 16;21(1):35.
     
  12. de Feria Cardet RE, Hofman MS, Segard T, et al. Is Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging Cost-effective in Prostate Cancer: An Analysis Informed by the proPSMA Trial. Eur Urol. 2021 Mar;79(3):413-418.
     
  13. Kalff V, Iravani A, Ackhurst T, et al. Utility of 68Ga-DOTA-Exendin-4 PET/CT imaging in distinguishing between insulinoma and nesidioblastosis in patients with confirmed endogenous hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Intern Med J. 2021 Oct;51(10):1657-1664.
     
  14. Dhiantravan N, Violet J, Eapen R, et al. Clinical Trial Protocol for LuTectomy: A Single-arm Study of the Dosimetry, Safety, and Potential Benefit of 177Lu-PSMA-617 Prior to Prostatectomy. Eur Urol Focus. 2020 Nov 7
     
  15. Sim IW, Borromeo GL, Tsao C, et al. Teriparatide Promotes Bone Healing in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Sep 10;38(26):2971-2980.
     
  16. Gafita A, Fendler WP, Hui W, et al. Efficacy and Safety of 177Lu-labeled Prostate- specific Membrane Antigen Radionuclide Treatment in Patients with Diffuse Bone Marrow Involvement: A Multicenter Retrospective Study. Eur Urol. 2020 Jun 9
     
  17. Anton A, Kamel Hasan O, Ballok Z, et al. Use of PSMA PET/CT in Response Assessment Following Upfront Chemohormonal Therapy in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. BJU Int. 2020 Jun 24.
     
  18. Fettke H, Kwan EM, Docanto M, et al. Combined cell-free DNA and RNA profiling of the androgen receptor: clinical utility of a novel multi-analyte liquid biopsy assay for metastatic prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2020;78(2):173-180
     
  19. M Perera, N Papa, M Williams, et al. 68Ga-PSMA PET in advanced prostate cancer - updated diagnostic utility, sensitivity and specificity and distribution of PSMA-avid lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol 2020;77(4):403-17.

    Our previous systematic review of PSMA PET/CT published in Eur Urol in 2016 has attracted >650 citations within four years. This is our updated 2020 review which has already 160 citations.
     
  20. Armstrong AJ, Szmulewitz RZ, Petrylak D, et al.: A Randomized, Phase III Study of Androgen Deprivation Therapy with Enzalutamide or Placebo in Men with Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer. J Clin Oncol 2019; 37(32):2974-2986 
     
  21. Correa RJM, Louie AV, Siva S, et al. The Emerging Role of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Primary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Eur Urol Focus. 2019 Nov;5(6):958-969
     
  22. S Siva, M Bressel, DG Murphy, et al. Single Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Trial. Eur Urol 2018;74(4):455-462. This was a prospective study of stereotactic radiotherapy in men with oligometastatic prostate cancer as determined by PET imaging; a relevant contribution to the literature on oligometastatic disease.
     
  23. Siva S, Louie AV, Warner A, et al. Pooled analysis of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for primary renal cell carcinoma: A report from the International Radiosurgery Oncology Consortium for Kidney (IROCK). Cancer. 2018 Mar 1;124(5):934-942.
     
  24. RA Taylor, M Fraser, J Livingstone, et al. Germline BRCA2 Mutations Drive Prostate Cancers with Distinct Evolutionary Trajectories. Nature Communications 2017;8:13671. Detailed PDX project describing genomic instability in localised prostate cancers from BRCA2 patients.
     
  25. Wyatt AW*, Azad AA*, Volik SV, et al. Genomic alterations in cell-free DNA and enzalutamide resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2016 1;2(12):1598-1606
     
  26. Azad AA*, Volik SV*, Wyatt AW*, et al. Androgen receptor gene aberrations in circulating cell-free DNA: biomarkers of therapeutic resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2015;21(10):2315-24 
     
  27. Kwan EM, Spain L, Anton A, et al. Avelumab combined with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC): the phase 2 ICE-PAC clinical trial. Eur Urol (in press). 
  1. Amin A, Blazevski A, Thompson J, Scheltema MJ, Hofman MS, Murphy D, Lawrentschuk N, Sathianathen N, Kapoor J, Woo HH, Chalasani V, Rasiah K, van Leeuwen PJ, Tang R, Cusick T, Stricker P, Emmett L. Protocol for the PRIMARY clinical trial, a prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study of the additive diagnostic value of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron-emission tomography/computed tomography to multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnostic setting for men being investigated for prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2020 Jan 19. doi: 10.1111/bju.14999.
  2. Hofman MS, Emmett L, Violet J, Y Zhang A, Lawrence NJ, Stockler M, Francis RJ, Iravani A, Williams S, Azad A, Martin A, McJannett M; ANZUP TheraP team, Davis ID. TheraP: a randomized phase 2 trial of (177) Lu-PSMA-617 theranostic treatment vs cabazitaxel in progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (Clinical Trial Protocol ANZUP 1603). BJU Int. 2019 Nov;124 Suppl 1:5-13.
  3. Hofman MS, Murphy DG, Williams SG, Nzenza T, Herschtal A, Lourenco RA, Bailey  DL, Budd R, Hicks RJ, Francis RJ, Lawrentschuk N. A prospective randomized multicentre study of the impact of gallium-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT imaging for staging high-risk prostate cancer prior to curative-intent surgery or radiotherapy (proPSMA study): clinical trial protocol. BJU Int. 2018 May 3. 
  1. Sandhu S, Guo C, Hofman MS. Radionuclide Therapy in Prostate Cancer: from standalone to combination PSMA theranostics. J Nucl Med. 2021 Aug 12:jnumed.120.243295.
     
  2. Farolfi A, Hadaschik B, Hamdy FC, et al. Positron Emission Tomography and Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Metastasis-directed Therapy in Hormone-sensitive Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer After Primary Radical Treatment: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol Oncol. 2021 Oct;4(5):714-730.
     
  3. Ploussard G, Fossati N, Wiegel T, et al. Management of Persistently Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Eur Urol Oncol. 2021 Apr;4(2):150-169.
     
  4. Lawhn-Heath C, Salavati A, Behr SC, et al. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET in Prostate Cancer. Radiology. 2021 May;299(2):248-260.
     
  5. Bagguley D, Ong S, Buteau JP, et al. The role of PSMA PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis, staging and restaging of prostate cancer. Future Oncol. 2021 Mar 16.
     
  6. Ceci F, Oprea-Lager DE, Emmett L, et al. E-PSMA: the EANM standardized reporting guidelines v1.0 for PSMA- PET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2021 Feb 19.
     
  7. Ploussard G, Fossati N, Wiegel T, et al. Management of Persistently Elevated Prostate-specific Antigen After Radical Prostatectomy: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Eur Urol Oncol. 2021, Feb 8
     
  8. Farolfi A, Hadaschik B, Hamdy FC, et al. Positron Emission Tomography and Whole-body Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Metastasis-directed Therapy in Hormone-sensitive Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer After Primary Radical Treatment: A Systematic Review. Eur Urol Oncol. 2021 Mar 6
     
  9. Miyahira AK, Pienta KJ, Babich JW, et al. Meeting report from the Prostate Cancer Foundation PSMA theranostics state of the science meeting. Prostate. 2020 Aug 31.
     
  10. Ravi Kumar AS, Lawrentschuk N, Hofman MS. Prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography for staging prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2020 Sep;30(5):628-634.
     
  11. Mayor N, Sathianathen NJ, Buteau J, et al. PSMA Theranostics in advanced prostate cancer: an evolving option. BJU Int. 2020 Jun 19.
     
  12. Gillessen S, Attard G, Beer TM, et al. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Report of the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2019. Eur Urol. 2020 Apr;77(4):508-547.
     
  13. Siva S, Udovicich C, Tran B, et al. Expanding the role of small-molecule PSMA ligands beyond PET staging of prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2020 Feb;17(2):107-118.
     
  14. Iravani A, Violet J, Azad A, Hofman MS. Lutetium-177 prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) theranostics: practical nuances and intricacies. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Oct 8. doi: 10.1038/s41391-019-0174-x. [Epub ahead of print]
     
  15. Koschel S, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Wong LM. The role of prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/computed tomography in primary staging of prostate cancer. Curr Opin Urol. 2019 Nov;29(6):569-577.
     
  16. Alipour R, Azad A, Hofman MS. Guiding management of therapy in prostate cancer: time to switch from conventional imaging to PSMA PET? Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2019 Sep 20;11:1758835919876828.
     
  17. Hofman MS, Iravani A, Nzenza T, Murphy DG. Advances in Urologic Imaging: Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligand PET Imaging. Urol Clin North Am. 2018 Aug;45(3):503-524. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2018.03.016.
     
  18. Ferdinandus J, Violet J, Sandhu S, Hofman MS. Prostate-specific membrane antigen theranostics: therapy with lutetium-177. Curr Opin Urol. 2018 Mar;28(2):197-204.
     
  19. Hofman MS, Hicks RJ, Maurer T, Eiber M. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen PET: Clinical Utility in Prostate Cancer, Normal Patterns, Pearls, and Pitfalls. Radiographics. 2018 Jan-Feb;38(1):200-217
     
  20. Eiber M, Fendler WP, Rowe SP, et al. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Ligands for Imaging and Therapy. J Nucl Med. 2017 Sep;58(Suppl 2):67S-76S.
     
  21. Hofman MS, Iravani A. Gallium-68 Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET Imaging. PET Clin. 2017 Apr;12(2):219-234. doi: 10.1016/j.cpet.2016.12.004. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
     
  22. Udovicich C, Perera M, Siva S, et al. 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in Advanced Prostate Cancer: current state and future trends, Prostate International 2017. Dec;5(4):125-129.
  1. Hofman M. PSMA PET/CT for staging and treatment of prostate cancer. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2019 Jul;17(7):370-373.
  2. Hofman MS, Emmett L. Tumour Heterogeneity and Resistance to Therapy in Prostate Cancer: A Fundamental Limitation of Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Theranostics or a Key Strength? Eur Urol. 2019 Jul 24.
  3. Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Azad A, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Lawrentschuk N. Going nuclear - It is time to embed the nuclear medicine physician in the prostate cancer multidisciplinary team. BJU Int. 2019 May 24.
  4. Rahbar K, Hofman MS, Schrader AJ, Boegemann M. A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: Comparing (177)Lu-PSMA Radioligand therapy in Taxane Naïve vs Post-Taxane metastasized Prostate Cancer Patients? J Nucl Med. 2019 Mar 29.
  5. Murphy DG, Sathianathen N, Hofman MS, Azad A, Lawrentschuk N. Where to Next for Theranostics in Prostate Cancer? Eur Urol Oncol. 2019 Mar;2(2):163-165.
  6. Vapiwala N, Hofman MS, Murphy DG, Williams S, Sweeney C. Strategies for Evaluation of Novel Imaging in Prostate Cancer: Putting the Horse Back Before the Cart. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Apr 1;37(10):765-769.
  7. Murphy DG, Azad AA, Sandhu S, Violet J, Hofman MS. Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Across the Spectrum of Prostate Cancer: Detection, Surgery, and Theranostics. Eur Urol. 2019 Jun;75(6):927-928.
  8. Eapen RS, Nzenza TC, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Cooperberg M, Lawrentschuk N. PSMA PET applications in the prostate cancer journey: from diagnosis to theranostics. World J Urol. 2018 Oct 29.
  9. Hofman MS, Violet J, Hicks RJ, Sandhu S. [(177)Lu]-PSMA-617 radionuclide therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer - Author's reply. Lancet Oncol. 2018 Aug;19(8):e373.
  10. Hofman MS. Accuracy in the eye of the beholder: can we improve agreement in prostate cancer diagnostics with PSMA PET/CT? J Nucl Med. 2017 Jun 21.
  11. Maurer T, Murphy DG, Hofman MS, Eiber M. PSMA-PET for Lymph Node Detection in Recurrent Prostate Cancer: How do we use the Magic Bullet? Theranostics. 2017 May 15;7(7):2046-2047.
  12. Violet J, Hofman MS, Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) from diagnostic to therapeutic target: radionuclide therapy comes of age in prostate cancer, BJUI 2017 Apr 5
  13. Murphy DG, Hofman M, Lawrentschuk N, Maurer T. Bringing clarity or confusion? The role of prostate-specific membrane antigen positron-emission/computed tomography for primary staging in prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2017 Feb;119(2):194-195.