Frequently asked questions about COVID-19 vaccination

With Australia’s COVID-19 vaccination program underway, we are receiving questions from patients and carers about vaccination for people affected by cancer. The information and resources on this page should address some of your uncertainties.

COVID-19 vaccination fact sheet

This fact sheet was prepared in collaboration with Cancer Council Victoria to address some of the most common questions being asked about the COVID-19 vaccines.

COVID-19 Vaccination - Information for people affected by cancer

Frequently Asked Questions

Below is a list of frequently asked questions and answers on the COVID-19 vaccination program.

If you have further questions and are on active treatment, please call your Patient Navigator.

If you're not on active treatment, you can also contact Cancer Council Victoria’s cancer nurses on 13 11 20, who can provide information and support services to anyone affected by cancer - whether it's patients, carers, family, friends, workplaces or health professionals. You can also email them via their Contact a cancer nurse form. The nurses are available from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday. If you need a translator to use this service, call 13 14 50.


Yes. Victoria has reserved COVID-19 vaccine appointments for people aged 16 years and over deemed to be vulnerable and at high risk from COVID-19, including people with or recovering from cancer. COVID-19 vaccination is highly recommended for people with cancer. If you are undergoing treatment, we recommend you consult your treating specialist or doctor regarding optimal vaccination timing. For more information, view this fact sheet

There are three vaccines that have been secured by Australia. Two have been approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).

  • Pfizer (USA) / BioNTech (Germany) vaccine – often referred to as the Pfizer vaccine – requires two doses, three weeks apart.
  • Oxford University (UK) / AstraZeneca (UK/Sweden) vaccine – often referred to as the AstraZeneca vaccine – requires two doses, 12 weeks apart.

The third vaccine, Novavax (USA) – often referred to as the Novavax vaccine, is still being studied and has not yet been TGA-approved for use in Australia.

The vaccines will train our immune system to recognise the COVID-19 virus and fight it more quickly and effectively if we encounter this virus in the future.

COVID-19 vaccines are currently available for everyone aged 16 years and over, and from Wednesday, 25 August 2021, anyone aged 16-59 years will be able to receive the Pfizer vaccine, and anyone aged 18-59 years will be able to choose to receive either Pfizer or AstraZeneca. Those aged 60 and over will continue to receive AstraZeneca. This advice applies across state vaccination centres only. Pfizer COVID-19 appointments will be available by booking only. No walk-ins will be accepted for the general population.

For more information on who can get their COVID-19 vaccination, see

Both the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines have passed Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration’s assessment and approval processes that assess vaccine safety, quality and effectiveness. They do not contain the live virus that causes COVID-19 and therefore there is no risk of catching the infection from the vaccines.

A rare but serious side effect involving thrombosis in the brain (blood clots) along with thrombocytopenia (low blood platelet count) has been linked with the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine, predominantly in people under 50 years. For more information about the AstraZeneca vaccine, visit COVID-19 Vaccines.

As a result, the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) has advised Australian adults under the age of 60, including people with a past history of cancer who are in remission and more than five years post-treatment, to receive the Pfizer vaccine in preference to the AstraZeneca vaccine.

Adults aged 18-59 can still choose to receive the AstraZeneca vaccine. They must provide informed consent to do this. Read more about weighing up benefits and risk of the AstraZeneca vaccine.

However, both vaccines are equally recommended for all Australian adults aged 60 years and over.

Some types of cancer and their treatment increase the risk of catching COVID-19 and having a more severe illness from COVID-19. Vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore highly recommended, as long as the person does not have a serious allergy to components of the COVID-19 vaccine.

The COVID-19 vaccines have not been studied specifically in patients with cancer. How your immune system responds to the vaccine may be influenced by your own general health and your cancer treatment.

We know from studies of other vaccines (such as the flu vaccine) in patients with cancer that the level of response or protection from vaccination may be lower compared to people without cancer. So steps that you have taken to reduce your risk of infection, such as physical distancing, hand hygiene and use of masks, remain important even after vaccination. Such measures help prevent infection, while vaccination is designed to reduce the impact of COVID-19 should you become infected.

All individuals should follow Australia-wide advice on which vaccines to take, based on their age and risk factors. In addition, the ATAGI recommends that COVID-19 vaccination be deferred for people who have a history of two rare conditions – brain blood clots, known as cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) or low platelets caused by heparin induced thrombocytopenia.

Based on how the vaccines work, we do not anticipate that the vaccines will reduce the effectiveness of cancer treatments.

Your doctor will be able to discuss timing of vaccination with you, as with some therapies it may be preferable to avoid vaccination during certain treatment periods.  This is to avoid confusion around possible side effects and whether they have been caused by the vaccine or your cancer treatment.

People with a blood cancer diagnosis (myeloma, lymphoma or leukaemia) are at increased risk of complications from COVID-19 infection. Vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore highly recommended, as long as the person does not have a serious allergy to components of the COVID-19 vaccine.

For patients who have had an autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplant, vaccination is recommended at least three months after your transplant.

Common side effects from the vaccine have typically been mild and short-lived – like pain or redness at the injection site. Up to half of all vaccinated people will experience some general side effects such as tiredness, headache and muscle aches and pain or fever.

You should seek medical advice if, for example, you develop a fever, accompanied by shivering and sweating or if unexpected symptoms such as severe headache appear or persist beyond the first three days following vaccination.

An annual influenza vaccination is generally recommended. Your doctor can advise on timing, as the current recommended gap between a dose of seasonal influenza vaccine and a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is at least seven days.

If you have had a severe allergic reaction to a vaccine in the past, or to a particular type of COVID-19 vaccine, you should discuss with your doctor or specialist the type of reaction you had to the particular vaccine. You may be referred to specialised vaccination clinics for further assessment and if suitable, for vaccination under close supervision.

COVID-19 vaccines are free in Australia. The type of vaccine offered and availability of vaccination bookings is dependent on vaccine supplies, which may be limited initially. Generally, patients with cancer are in Phase 1b of the Australian Government vaccination program. The Australian Government’s Vaccine Eligibility Checker can be used to find out which phase of the rollout you are in. If you are eligible, you will be able to view your nearest vaccination clinics and book an appointment online or via phone. If you are not yet eligible, you will be able to register your interest so that you can be notified when you are able to book. To check your eligibility and book, go to:

When enough of us get vaccinated against COVID-19, life will be better for everyone.

See links to information and videos in languages other than English.  

It is encouraged that you share these vital messages with your friends, family, colleagues and social media networks.